Low Back Pain

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    Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    GENERAL The sacroiliac joint is a quite common cause of chronic low back pain. According to the criteria set by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), the sacroiliac joint pain is defined as the pain which is located in the sacroiliac joint, reproduced with provocation and stress-inducing tests of the joint and [...]

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    Lumbar Radicular Pain (Sciatica)

    GENERAL Lumbar radicular pain or sciatica, as most commonly known, is defined as pain induced by irritation, inflammation, pressure or injury of a lumbar spinal nerve. The pain is located in the ipsilateral lower extremity and is characterized as a sharp, stabbing, electric shock sensation. Lumbar radicular pain has to be differentiated from lumbar radiculopathy. [...]

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    Spinal Stenosis

    GENERAL Spinal stenosis is the condition in which the spinal canal (i.e. the part of the spine enclosing the spinal cord and nerve roots) gets narrow and, as a result, exerts pressure upon the sensitive structures within the spinal canal. This condition is gradually aggravated causing pain and limiting the patient’s capacity for various physical [...]

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    Disc Degenerative Disease

    GENERAL Disc Degenerative Disease (DDD)  is the distortion of the interior architecture of an intervertebral disc, not necessarily because of disc protrusion and with no clinical signs of nerve root compression. It is estimated that approximately 40% of patients suffering from chronic low back pain are due to intervertebral disc degeneration. (3,4) ANATOMY Intervertebral discs [...]

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    Vertebral Compression Fracture

    GENERAL Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are quite common in the population and are mainly due to osteoporosis. The problem is that almost 2/3 of these fractures remain undiagnosed and are attributed to pain caused by muscle spasms or spondyloarthritis related to ageing. They are more frequent in women after menopause, mainly in the more advanced ages, [...]

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    Herniated/Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc

    client=”3731″; width=580; openthis=”A_a64b4f20″; vm_open(); ANATOMY Vertebral bodies are separated one from another with intervertebral discs. The discs are composed of an inner core (nucleus pulposus) and an outer ring (annulus fibrosus), which supports the nucleus. Intervertebral discs are like “cushions” between vertebrae and serve as the spine’s shock absorbing system. In many cases, intervertebral discs [...]

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    Injury of Paravertebral Muscles (Strain) and Ligaments (Sprain)

    The most common causes of acute low back pain are injury, overloading, sprain or/and strain of paravertebral muscles and ligaments induced by weight lifting, muscle overuse and fatigue.  The pain is usually located around the waist, without radiating to legs, and is attributed to muscle spasm. The pain subsides within 2-3 days with rest. If [...]

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    Facet Joint Syndrome

    ANATOMY Joint is the meeting point of two or more bones. The joint allows the movement of bones. The bones of the spine are called vertebrae. Vertebrae are interconnected through facet joints, else known as zygoapophyseal joints or apophyseal joints. Every vertebra has two pairs of facet joints. The two processes (apophyses) sticking out of [...]

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    Low Back Pain

    Low back pain is typically differentiated in acute and chronic. •    Acute low back pain has a sudden onset and short duration, ranging from some days to a few weeks. It usually subsides with conservative treatment (rest, medication, physical therapy). If not treated effectively, some acute low back pain syndromes may transform into chronic pain [...]