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  • Meralgia-Paresthetica-Lateral-Femoral-Cutaneous-Nerve

    Meralgia Paraesthetica

    CAUSES Meralgia Paraesthetica is the condition where the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is compressed by the inguinal ligament, due to obesity, pregnancy or belt worn too tight around the waist. ANATOMY The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is part of the lumbar plexus and  is formed by branches of the 2nd and 3rd lumbar spinal nerve [...]

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    Cancer Pain

    GENERAL Thirty per cent (30%) of cancer patients suffer from pain during the diagnostic phase and 65-85% experience severe pain in more advanced stages of the disease. According to Cleeland et al, 67% of patients treated for the disease in an outpatient setting experience pain which is undertreated and, as a result, they have a [...]

  • DISK 2

    Disc Degenerative Disease

    GENERAL Disc Degenerative Disease (DDD)  is the distortion of the interior architecture of an intervertebral disc, not necessarily because of disc protrusion and with no clinical signs of nerve root compression. It is estimated that approximately 40% of patients suffering from chronic low back pain are due to intervertebral disc degeneration. (3,4) ANATOMY Intervertebral discs [...]

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    Trigeminal Neuralgia

    GENERAL Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic syndrome of neuropathic pain affecting the facial area. It is considered to be the most excruciating pain probably due to the fact that the facial region has a very dense distribution of sensory nerve endings per square centimeter. The pain is so severe that it affects significantly even [...]

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    Vertebral Compression Fracture

    GENERAL Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are quite common in the population and are mainly due to osteoporosis. The problem is that almost 2/3 of these fractures remain undiagnosed and are attributed to pain caused by muscle spasms or spondyloarthritis related to ageing. They are more frequent in women after menopause, mainly in the more advanced ages, [...]

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    Facet Joint Syndrome

    ANATOMY Joint is the meeting point of two or more bones. The joint allows the movement of bones. The bones of the spine are called vertebrae. Vertebrae are interconnected through facet joints, else known as zygoapophyseal joints or apophyseal joints. Every vertebra has two pairs of facet joints. The two processes (apophyses) sticking out of [...]